The most significant obstacle to conducting empirical knowledge towards the dowry ‘s the run out of or inadequacy of data

The most significant obstacle to conducting empirical knowledge towards the dowry ‘s the run out of or inadequacy of data

2.dos Issues with current studies

Because the dowry are legally blocked inside Asia and you will Bangladesh, people usually hesitate to let you know exact dowry wide variety. The quality question on dowry throughout the Indian dataset asks in the community-mainly based dowry. Such as, brand new Asia People Invention Questionnaire requires “Essentially in the region getting children like yours, do you know the version of items that are offered as the merchandise in the course of the fresh daughter’s matrimony?” A residential district-situated dowry is not the identical to a single dowry, which is paid back because of the bride’s moms and dads at the time of matrimony. Rather, issue from dowry allows simply a binary answer, i.age., even if an optimistic number of dowry was reduced (elizabeth.g., Survey on Standing of females and you will Virility in India and you can Pakistan). A digital respond to, of course, will not give much considerably more details. Typical out of if an optimistic dowry matter is provided corresponds in order to, and that’s mostly said because of the, ethnic, religious, and you can caste experiences in Southern area China.

Given that dowry isn’t legally banned when you look at the Pakistan, the amount physically paid down of the women respondent’s mothers are asked instead scheduling from inside the a beneficial Pakistani dataset such as the Pakistan Outlying Domestic Questionnaire. Even if Pakistani interviewees will most likely not intentionally keep hidden genuine information on dowry methods, the fresh questionnaire could possibly get nevertheless incorporate keep in mind mistakes since the participants need bear in mind the latest dowry amount paid of the the mothers previously. Shape 1a plots the brand new predict level of actual dowry viewpoints mentioned in the Pakistani Rupees into the 2004 onto matrimony year having fun with research off the latest Pakistan Outlying Family Survey. Because opinion would be the fact actual dowry wide variety is actually increasing, or at least showcase a low-declining trend, the brand new shape implies the overall interest out-of recall errors. This means, the fresh lengthened this new gap amongst the interviewees’ wedding as well as the keep in mind date, a lot more likely he’s to help you overestimate new dowry number.

Relationships ranging from ladies ounts. The latest range suggests the predicted real number of dowry regressed into the women’s relationships seasons. Brand new shady area shows 95% believe period of your forecast level of dowry. The content sources of (a) and (b) is Pakistan Outlying Domestic Survey 2004, in addition to outlying family survey conducted because of the blogger during the 2013, respectively

3 Research

Towards best of our knowledge, study obtained within this analysis could be the very first to look at explicitly a standard tendency to overestimate an expense paid a long time in the past. Just like the properties from in earlier times accumulated studies, ours are also retrospective; not, according to this desire, i such as observed particular services to reduce survey remember mistakes. Instance, i wanted the level of one another area-founded dowry (non-retrospective) and private dowry number paid back during this new respondent’s wedding (retrospective). Because the Pakistani dowry include silver/accessories, outfits, chairs, kitchenware, and stuff like that, we queried dowry quantity because of the items. If we sensed a good respondent’s overestimation of your own dowry count, particularly in the fact of a married relationship one taken place a great long time in the past, due to the fact dowry try displayed, we are able to and did look at this type of wide variety with individuals who went to the new service. Thus, all of our research to the predict actual amounts of dowry (Fig. 1b) don’t tell you one coming down development, on the other hand that have those people stated in the Fig. 1a.

3.1 Questionnaire

When conducting our survey between , we intended to capture the heterogeneous aspects of the Punjab province in Pakistan. We divided Punjab (36 districts) into five regions: Pothohar (or North), Central, East, West, and South Punjab. Climate, culture (including marriage/inheritance practices), and socioeconomic conditions differ across regions but are similar within each region. We randomly selected one district from each region, namely, Rawalpindi, Mandi Bahauddin, Narowal, Muzaffargarh, and Bahawalnagar (Fig. 2). We used the district census for 1998–1999, the latest census available in Pakistan as of 2013, to randomly select six villages in rural areas in each of the five districts. We restricted sampling villages to those with a population of at least 1000 at the time of the census. In each village, we selected 22 households, following a stratified random sampling methodology. First, with assistance from the village chief, we made a list of households in the village and categorized them into a stratum. The strata are kammees Footnote 10 (i.e., traditional service or lower caste, with annual income ? PKR 200,000, > PKR 200,000) and zamindars (i.e., landowning farmers with land < 5,>12.5 acres). Eligible households in our survey are defined as those with an economically active husband and wife aged 15–65. Second, we performed stratified random sampling so that the share of each stratum in our sample corresponds to the share of each stratum of the village population (= households).

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